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Low back pain is a high-incidence musculoskeletal disorder that has been causing worsening of the patient's functional capacity and many impacts on public health. Currently, it is considered one of the biggest pain complaints we receive, especially by women.

According to Oliveira (2020), low back pain affects 65% of the population annually and 84% of people at some point in life. In addition, it has been generating significant social impacts, reaching - mostly - individuals from the age of thirty Physiotherapist.We know that from that age, the hydration of the disc decreases, also reducing its capacity to support tensile loads. Thus, the individual is more susceptible to trauma.

Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the causes of the appearance of this condition, to evaluate each case and, of course, to know how to perform a good treatment for low back pain. Keep reading to find out more about this issue!

The anatomy of the region and the causes of low back pain

The lumbar vertebrae have a different anatomical structure, with the widest vertebral body, and are the largest vertebrae in terms of spinal dimension. Anatomically, they have this configuration to perform the support of tensile loads.This lumbar segment is composed of five vertebrae and has a physiological curvature called lordosis. In addition, it performs flexion, extension, lateralization and little rotation movements.

Low back pain is characterized by a discomfort in the lower back that can occur in a punctual or irradiated manner, and can be caused by Physiotherapist numerous factors - that is why it is considered multifactorial. Among them are postural changes, musculoskeletal disorders and emotional factors. Still, low back pain presents as symptoms:

  • Discomfort in the lumbar vertebrae
  • It can affect breathing
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Tiredness
  • Rigid musculature
  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain
  • Indigestion
The stabilization of this region is carried out by the deep muscles such as multifidus and transversus abdominis. It also has the integration of ligaments and the neural system that pass through there - and the thoracolumbar fascia.

In patients with low back pain, we can find two types of pain: acute and chronic pain. The first is severe short-term pain - estimated to last up to six weeks - Physiotherapist and it gets worse during movement. Chronic pain, on the other hand, is more frequent and configured by that painful sensation that exceeds 12 weeks, generating discomfort and functional limitation. 

According to Pain (2018), chronic low back pain is defined as pain present from the last costal arch to the gluteal fold, persisting for more than twelve weeks and not resulting from a specific disease, but from a set of causes. In this context, it is important to be able to assess each condition so that the best treatment for low back pain can be planned. Read below how the assessment can be decisive in these cases.


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